The political developments around the world have made the concept of fascism relevant, once again. In history classes, we are told that the reason we study history is to learn lessons from our past so that we don't repeat our mistakes, but ironically enough, history is a sum of mistakes being repeated
Eco grew up under Mussolini's fascist regime. There was also Nazi Germany and Franco's dictatorship in Spain. These regimes had something in common: they were all based on oppressive and authoritarian mentalities, and are radical and nationalist political movements. Umberto Eco, the Italian novelist, and critic, summarized 14 basic features of fascism in his article Ur-Fascism in 1995. Do you think that any of this is still valid for our day? How much has changed over the last 22 years?