The Most Hated Clan In The U.S.: The Klu Klux Klan

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There is a lot of pain, massacres and tears in human history. The Klu Klux Klan is one of the most brutal groups in the history of the U.S.A. They were first founded as a social group, then turned into a savage organization. In this list, you can learn how this group came to be.

1. A group, including many former Confederate veterans, founded the first branch of the Ku Klux Klan as a social club in Pulaski, Tennessee in 1866.

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The first two words of the organization’s name are supposedly derived from the Greek word “kyklos,” meaning circle.

2. In the summer of 1867, local branches of the Klan met in a general organizing convention and established what they called an “Invisible Empire of the South.”

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3. Leading Confederate general Nathan Bedford Forrest was chosen as the first leader, or “grand wizard,” of the Klan. He presided over a hierarchy of grand dragons, grand titans and grand cyclopses.

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4. The organization took as its symbol a burning cross.

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5. The organization of the Ku Klux Klan coincided with the beginning of the second phase of post-Civil War Reconstruction, put into place by the more radical members of the Republican Party in Congress.

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After rejecting President Andrew Johnson’s relatively lenient Reconstruction policies in place from 1865 to 1866, Congress passed the Reconstruction Act over the presidential veto.

6. 

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From 1867 onward, African-American participation in public life in the South became one of the most radical aspects of Reconstruction, as blacks won election to southern state governments and even to the U.S. Congress. 

For its part, the Ku Klux Klan dedicated itself to an underground campaign of violence against Republican leaders and voters (both black and white) in an effort to reverse the policies of Radical Reconstruction and restore white supremacy in the South.

7. They were joined in this struggle by similar organizations such as the Knights of the White Camelia (launched in Louisiana in 1867) and the White Brotherhood.

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At least 10 percent of the black legislators elected during the 1867-1868 constitutional conventions became victims of violence during Reconstruction, including seven who were killed. 

White Republicans (derided as “carpetbaggers” and “scalawags”) and black institutions such as schools and churches—symbols of black autonomy—were also targets for Klan attacks.

By 1870, the Ku Klux Klan had branches in nearly every southern state. Even at its height, the Klan did not boast a well-organized structure or clear leadership.

8. Klan members–often wearing masks and dressed in the organization’s signature long white robes and hoods

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They usually carried out their attacks at night, acting on their own but in support of the common goals of defeating Radical Reconstruction and restoring white supremacy in the South. 

Klan activity flourished, particularly in the regions of the South where blacks were a minority or a small majority of the population, and was relatively limited in others. Among the most notorious zones of Klan activity was South Carolina, where in January 1871, 500 masked men attacked the Union county jail and lynched eight black prisoners.

9. Though Democratic leaders would later attribute Ku Klux Klan violence to poorer southern whites, the organization’s membership crossed class lines, from small farmers and laborers to planters, lawyers, merchants, physicians and ministers.

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In the regions where most Klan activity took place, local law enforcement officials either belonged to the Klan or declined to take action against it, and even those who arrested accused Klansmen found it difficult to find witnesses willing to testify against them.

Other leading white citizens in the South declined to speak out against the group’s actions, giving them tacit approval.

10. After 1870, Republican state governments in the South turned to Congress for help, resulting in the passage of three Enforcement Acts, the strongest of which was the Ku Klux Klan Act of 1871.

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For the first time, the Ku Klux Klan Act designated certain crimes committed by individuals as federal offenses, including conspiracies to deprive citizens of the right to hold office, serve on juries and enjoy the equal protection of the law.

The act authorized the president to suspend the writ of habeas corpus and arrest accused individuals without charge, and to send federal forces to suppress Klan violence.

This expansion of federal authority–which Ulysses S. Grant promptly used in 1871 to crush Klan activity in South Carolina and other areas of the South–outraged Democrats and even alarmed many Republicans. From the early 1870s onward, white supremacy gradually reasserted its hold on the South as support for Reconstruction waned; by the end of 1876, the entire South was under Democratic control once again.

11. In 1915, white Protestant nativists organized a revival of the Ku Klux Klan near Atlanta, Georgia, inspired by their romantic view of the Old South as well as Thomas Dixon’s 1905 book “The Clansman” and D.W. Griffith’s 1915 film “Birth of a Nation.

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A scene from the movie

12. In 1915, white Protestant nativists organized a revival of the Ku Klux Klan near Atlanta, Georgia.

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This second generation of the Klan was not only anti-black but also took a stand against Roman Catholics, Jews, foreigners and organized labor.

13. Klan membership exceeded 4 million people nationwide.

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It was fueled by growing hostility to the surge in immigration that America experienced in the early 20th century along with fears of communist revolution akin to the Bolshevik triumph in Russia in 1917. The organization took as its symbol a burning cross and held rallies, parades and marches around the country. At its peak in the 1920s, Klan membership exceeded 4 million people nationwide.

14. The Great Depression in the 1930s depleted the Klan’s membership ranks

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Power struggles and sex scandals within the organization diminished its members. The organization temporarily disbanded in 1944 but this wasn't going to last long.

15. The civil rights movement of the 1960s saw a surge of local Klan activity across the South

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it included the bombings, beatings and shootings of black and white activists.

16. The cases of Klan-related violence became more isolated in the decades to come, though fragmented groups became aligned with neo-Nazi or other right-wing extremist organizations from the 1970s onward.

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17. In the early 1990s, the Klan was estimated to have between 6,000 and 10,000 active members, mostly in the Deep South.

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